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Kinetics of the Reactions of Ethylene Oxide with Water and Ethylene Glycols

This study of the water-contamination reactions of ethylene oxide was conducted by Arthur D. Little, Inc. with funding from, and under the auspices of, the American Chemistry Council. Significant experimental and technical contributions were also made by staff from Shell Chemicals' Westhollow Technology Center in Houston, TX, and Union Carbide Corporation's Research Center in South Charleston, WV. Unique fought-order kinetics for the reactions of ethylene oxide with ethylene glycols were derived and validated, as were kinetics for the reactions of neat ethylene oxide and the decomposition of ethylene glycols. The latter data was incorporated into a reaction model useful for the determination of ethylene oxide storage stability and pressure relief system design under water-contamination scenarios. Read more

On the Estimation of Hazard Potential for Chemical Substances

There is considerable interest in means for predicting reactivity hazard potential from chemical structure. Such means are intended to provide measures of the likelihood that a given chemical composition can undergo rapid self-reaction, i.e., that it can detonate or deflagrate. The means to be discussed are most useful in predicting behavior under unconfined conditions. As they are computational in nature, they can be deployed quickly and easily to wide ranges of compositions, whether or not these have ever been made. Comparison with better-known compositions is facilitated and can provide additional guidance. In this paper we provide critical reviews of some commonly used hazard evaluation systems, including the oxygen balance system, and ASTM CHETAH. We also provide a review of our recent studies aimed at the development of more powerful screening systems. Read more

Polymerization Modeling for Relief Systems Design

This 1,3-Buatadiene Polymerization Case Study was presented to the DIERS User Group on April 28-30, 2003 in Philadelphia, PA. Some conclusions that can be drawn from this presentation include: Free radical polymerization models should be run in parallel with thermally initiated polymerization models, It is possible for a free radical/anion initiated polymerization to “jump-start” thermally initiated polymerizations if sufficient initiator is present, and polymerization models are simple and can easily be applied in SuperChems™ for DIERS or other simulation computer codes for performing relief design for reactive systems and process optimization as well. Read more

Preventing Hidden Risks in BESS Using PHA Techniques

OSHA’s high hazard chemicals aren't the only chemicals that can cause a process safety incident. In April 2019, a fire and explosion of a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) at an Arizona electrical substation injured eight firefighters and threw one person over 70 feet. Read more

Reactive Storage Vessels Presentation

How to Determine if your Insulation is Going to Work Read more

Reactivity Expert Demonstration

A web-based framework for managing chemical reactivity hazards. Read more