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A Detailed Reaction Study of Phosphorus Trichloride and Water

This paper reports on a comprehensive literature search and small scale experimental work on the reaction characteristics of phosphorous trichloride and water. More than 30 tests were conducted, including both closed and open test cells. The water to phosphorus trichloride molar ratio was varied form 1 to 25. When in contact, water and phosphorus trichloride will form two liquid layers with a reaction starting at the interface. The impact of variables on reaction rates (including the interface surface area, layer depth, and stirring were investigated experimentally. A reaction rate model that fits all the measured data is presented. Case studies illustrating the use of this data for emergency relief systems and vent containment design are presented in reference [1]. Read more

A Kinetic Model for the Polymerization and Decomposition of Acrylonitrile

Conclusions that can be drawn from this presentation include: The presence of sodium hydroxide and ammonia will greatly accelerate the reaction of AN with HCN, AN Polymerization, and HCN polymerization. Small amounts of sodium hydroxide and ammonia present a significant safety hazard. We have developed a working model based on 21 calorimetry data sets that can be used to assess the effectiveness of existing relief systems in case of contamination and/or fire exposure to vessels containing mixtures of AN/HCN. Read more

A Review and Critique of ASTM CHETAH 7.0 Hazard Evaluation Criteria

ASTM Committee E-27 has recently released version 7.0 of the well-known CHETAH hazard evaluation program. This is the first revision since version 4.4, second edition, was published in 1990. In this paper, we review CHETAH's hazard criteria and point out conceptual deficiencies in criteria 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Read more

A Review and Critique of ASTM CHETAH 7.2

This review of the ASTM CHETAH computer program was conducted by Arthur D. Little, Inc. and published in ELSEVIER. Version 7.2 of the ASTM CHETAH computer program was issued in 1998. This version, successor to Version 7.0, provides a convenient spreadsheet-style means for estimating the standard heat formation of chemical compounds by use of the Benson group-additivity system. Read more

A Systematic Approach to Chemical Reactivity Evaluation

Reactive chemicals are materials capable of giving rise to an uncontrolled chemical reaction (a.k.a., a runaway reaction). Reactions with a significant release of heat, gas and/or toxic materials have the potential to cause harm to people, property or the environment. Despite OSHA’s Process Safety Management Standard (PSM) and EPA’s Risk Management Plan (RMP) regulations, accidents with reactive chemicals continue to happen. In their 2002 report, the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) identified failure of management systems for reactive chemistry as a key root cause of reactive chemical accidents. Managing reactive chemistry involves a systematic approach. The approach presented here incorporates both screening and experimental steps. As seen in Table 1, it begins with computational assessment, followed by experimental screening and finally, experimental testing. Read more

Addressing Combustible Dust Hazards

Many industries — from chemicals, plastics, and pharmaceuticals to food processing and mineral recovery — face combustible dust hazards in their facilities. Incidents such as the explosions and fires at the Imperial Sugar refinery in Port Wentworth, GA in February 2008 demonstrate the need to effectively manage these risks. Follow this approach to understand and mitigate your combustible dusts. Read more

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